Blood pressure medications, aka antihypertensive drug, are available under a prescription to control high blood pressure (hypertension). There are various types of high blood pressure pills and include a number of different medications. By keeping your blood pressure under control, antihypertensive agents help prevent complications such as strokes, heart attacks, and kidney disease. It is imperative to manage your blood pressure to improve your quality of life, as well as life expectancy.

Blood Pressure

Normal blood pressure is very important for your healthy and fit life. If the blood pressure will not exist, the blow flow in the circulatory system will not occur. It will stop the circulation of oxygen and other essential nutrients in the cells and tissues in your body. Therefore, high or low blood pressure can cause a lack of nourishment to your entire body.

Blood pressure is scientifically defined as a unique force required for pumping blood through the arteries. Blood pressure is important because oxygen and other nutrients get supplied to our circulatory system. These nutrients and micronutrients act to nourish the organs and internal tissues. They take part in the different biochemical processes in the body. Blood pressure is necessary for supplying antibodies to your immune system.

It is very essential to circulate them in the system. The circulatory system also helps to excrete the toxic materials from your body or body waste, such as toxins, chemicals, and carbon dioxide. However; further, these waste materials are processed from the liver and kidney, which are then expelled from your body. The blood also works to maintain the body temperature. The blood in our body circulates different substances, including platelets, to clot the blood if there is any bleeding because of a certain accident or injury. This function helps prevent excessive blood loss.  

The blood is pumped all over the body when our heart is contracted creating the beat. This mechanism generates the pressure required for the blood flow in our body. Normal blood pressure is important and should be maintained for healthy life and healthy functioning of our body. Increasing or decreasing, fluctuating blood pressure can cause several undesired health issues.

Function of Blood Pressure in Our System

Circulation is similar to a highly maintained and well-defined structure of plumbing. The blood in our body has “flow,” and blood vessels are “pipes.” The basic law of physics increases the blood flow, and this law applies to our pipe in the garden.

Blood flows through arteries; and their flow is maintained through the body due to the increasing and decreasing pressure.

Blood pressure is highest when it begins its journey from the heart when it enters the aorta. The pressure is lowest when it visits the end of its journey along progressing towards the narrow branches of arteries. This pressure difference is what helps to maintain the blood to flow.

The pressure increases in the water pipe when there is any blockage in the line. Similarly, when constrictions are present in our blood vessels the pressure in our blood increases. It leads to various cardiovascular problems.

Without the elastic nature of the blood vessels (arteries), for example, the pressure of the blood would fall off quickly when it is driven from the heart.

When the heart generates the maximum pressure, the properties of the arteries are essential for allowing blood to flow in our circulatory system.

The condition inside the arteries is what affects blood pressure and the blood flow, and narrowing of the arteries can lead to the blocking of the blood altogether, leading to risky situations such as stroke and cardiac attack.

Understanding Blood Pressure and Its Reading

Blood pressure measurement

The device that is commonly used for checking blood pressure is a sphygmomanometer. It contains a rubber armband — the cuff, which is inflated manually or a mechanical pump.

Once the cuff gets inflated enough for stopping the pulse, a reading is taken through an electronic method or analog dial.

The reading is displayed in terms of the pressure it takes to move the mercury in the tube against gravity. Therefore, this is the reason for pressure is measured using the unit millimeters of mercury, abbreviated to mm Hg.

Measuring blood pressure normally does not cause any discomfort or pain. However, you may feel numbing or tightening for a while.

Blood pressure readings

Understanding the Blood pressure readings in detail

A stethoscope catches the exact point where the pulse sound returns and the pressure on the cuff are released slowly. Using the blood pressure measuring instrument stethoscope helps the person measuring the blood pressure to listen to two important points.

Blood pressure readings are noted or displayed in two numbers: Systolic pressure is the first reading, and the diastolic pressure is the second reading. The reading is mentioned as, for instance, 140 over 90 mm Hg.

The systolic pressure is the highest figure caused by the heart's contraction; while the diastolic number is the lowest pressure that is generated on the arteries during the short-term “resting” period between the heartbeats.

The blood pressure is always measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). So the reading that we receive is always in a fraction as mentioned earlier.

What are systolic and diastolic pressure?
  • systolic pressure – is the pressure that is produced by our heart for pushing the blood out
  • diastolic pressure – is the pressure when the heart rests between the two beats

The standards that denote normal, high, and low blood pressure are as mentioned below:

Normal blood pressure is when the reading ranges between 90/60mmHg and 120/80mmHg

High blood pressure is when the reading ranges from 140/90mmHg or higher

Low blood pressure is when the reading ranges from 90/60mmHg or below

What are the different types of blood pressure?

Normal blood pressure

Normal blood pressure is when the systolic pressure ranges from 90 and less than 120, and the diastolic pressure ranges from 60 and less than 80. It is the ideal reading of the normal blood pressure range set by the American Heart Association (AHA). Individuals with normal blood pressure have good heart health. 

Elevated blood pressure

Elevated blood pressure is nothing but slightly higher blood pressure than normal, which is generally above 120/80 mm Hg. In elevated blood pressure, the systolic blood pressure ranges between 120 and 129 mm Hg, and the diastolic pressure is low than 80 mm Hg. However, this category directly falls in the class of high blood pressure or hypertension. It is just a slight rise from the normal range. Elevated blood pressure has a higher chance to progress into hypertension. However, with a healthy lifestyle and good physical health, one can control it effectively.

High blood pressure or hypertension

Hypertension or high blood pressure is a dangerous cardiovascular disorder. Masses are suffering from hypertension, and it is a serious issue as it can cause various other health issues. In the case of high blood pressure, the systolic pressure is 140 or more, and the diastolic pressure is 90 or higher. For treating high blood pressure your health professional will advise you on certain medicines and other recommendations for a diet plan or health exercises. However, for treating hypertension, relying on medicines is a very bad idea. Choosing a healthy lifestyle is extremely essential.

Low blood pressure or hypotension

Low blood pressure or hypotension is not usual. There are many people across the globe that is severely affected by hypotension or low blood pressure. Hypotension or low blood pressure could also be a result of side effects of different types of medications. However, it can occur because due to certain types of health disorders such as anemia or thalassemia. Normally, medications are not used to treat low blood pressure or hypotension. Health professionals generally suggest you make changes in your diet and lifestyle. Ignoring low blood pressure signs could be dangerous for your health.

Symptoms of hypertension and low blood pressure

Symptoms of high blood pressure

An individual is supposed to deal with high blood pressure or hypertension if they are suffering from below given symptoms.

  • kidney disease
  • obstructive sleep apnea
  • hereditary heart defects
  • issues with your thyroid
  • side effects of medicines
  • use of illegal drugs
  • alcohol consumption or chronic use
  • adrenal gland problems
  • certain endocrine tumors
  • Symptoms of low blood pressure
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Blurred or fading vision
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Lack of concentration

How hypertension or high blood pressure is diagnosed?

So, we will now discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and medications for hypertension or high blood pressure.

For diagnosing hypertension, one has to check the blood pressure readings first. Most health experts routinely test and check the BP readings of their regular hypertension patients. In case if your blood pressure is not checked in a while, your doctor may recommend you to get tested. For individuals with elevated blood pressure, their health professional may advise them to check their blood pressure frequently with close monitoring because it is on the verge of hypertension. Your health professional may not directly state the diagnosis when he notes the hypertension reading; he might investigate by taking more than one reading. Because sometimes blood pressure can increase because of some stressful situation or some sort of stress. Therefore, the blood pressure levels keep changing.

For the people who are known to have hypertension, their health professional will recommend them to take some laboratory tests to cross out other health problems. The tests are:

  • urine test
  • cholesterol check and extra blood tests
  • ECG
  • ultrasound of your heart or kidneys

These are important lab tests, which will help your health expert, identify if you are suffering from hypertension or high blood pressure, or elevated blood pressure. In addition, your health professional will also check if high blood pressure has affected your organ. Later, your health professional will begin the treatment of hypertension or high blood pressure.

Treatment of hypertension or high blood pressure

The treatment of hypertension varies depending on several other factors, such as the type of hypertension, and the causes of hypertension can be easily recognized by your health professional. In case; your doctor identifies a very common cause of hypertension, then the treatment is specifically diverted to the cause for controlling hypertension. For example, if you are taking a particular medication that stimulates enhancement in blood pressure, he might recommend another medication that does not cause hypertension.

In certain cases, hypertension could stay constant despite a specific health problem. If this is the case, your health expert might advise you to make some changes in your routine. Treatment for hypertension is commonly very volatile and keeps changing over the period as sometimes the old drugs might stop working, so the prescription is changed.

What are the different oral medications for hypertension?

Health professionals usually recommend; trial and error oral medicines according to the progress in your health. A person who experiences hypertension treatment has to try different combinations of medications to control high blood pressure.

Below given are the common medicines that are widely used for treating hypertension or high blood pressure:


Beta-blockers are oral medications effectively work to make your heart beats slow and reduce force. It reduces the quantity of blood pumped into your blood vessels with each and every beat that is produced. This whole reaction results in a drop in your blood pressure. It also helps for blocking certain hormones that cause a rise in blood pressure.


Another common reason for high blood pressure is higher sodium levels and excessive generation of body fluids. Diuretics are also commonly denoted as water pills, which expels the extra sodium from your body by working on the kidneys. As the sodium levels drop, excess fluid in the blood is expelled from the urine. This way, diuretic helps to reduce blood pressure.

ACE inhibitors

Angiotensin is a hormonal protein that causes vasoconstriction or contraction of arteries. ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor medicines stop the body from secreting this hormonal protein. This way, it helps to reduce blood pressure effectively.

Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)

ACE inhibitors are medicines that focus on stopping the production of angiotensin. On the other hand, Angiotensin II receptor blockers effectively work to inhibit the receptors of angiotensin protein present in our body. Devoid of the binding of the protein to the receptors, it cannot work to contract the arteries. ARBs are very effective for controlling blood pressure.

Calcium channel blockers

Calcium channel blockers medications are also commonly prescribed for treating hypertension or high blood pressure. They act by inhibiting the entry of calcium into the cardiovascular muscles. These medications help control the forceful heartbeats and act efficiently for regulating your blood pressure. Calcium channel blockers act on the blood pressure and work to inhibit the arteries from getting narrowed down.

Some tips for preventing high blood pressure or hypertension

This list and tips mentioned below are the important preventative measures for patients that can help them keep a healthy blood pressure levels:

Sustain a healthy body weight according to the doctor's recommendation.

Consume a balanced diet enriched with fruits and vegetables.

Reduce intake of sodium, or salt, in the diet.

Regularly involved in physical activity like brisk walking, for at least 30 minutes every day, most days of the week is also a good alternative.

Managing mental or physical stress.

Moderate alcohol consumption. Men should drink a few drinks a day. Women and men with low body weight should consume a maximum of one alcoholic drink a day.

Avoid smoking.

Work with a health professional to manage all prescriptions carefully.

Taking these steps can help you control hypertension effectively. Make sure you follow your doctor's advice.