Vaccines Available For COVID-19 Across the Globe

By Jason GrayApr 02, 2021366

Vaccines Available For COVID-19 Across the Globe

After whole year of the COVID-19 pandemic, now the vaccination drive across the globe is scaling up day by day. Vaccine-producing companies are working hard to overcome the challenges of demand and supply of vaccines so that the maximum population gets vaccinated. The development of a vaccine within such a short time is extraordinary because usually, it takes 10 to 15 years for a vaccine to launch. All thanks to technological advancement. The world first received its vaccine in November 2020. To date, nearly 7.25 billion doses are bought by countries and organizations around the world.

Understanding COVID-19 Vaccines by Country

Countries with higher incomes have bought millions of vaccine dosages from other major vaccine-producing countries; India has recently ordered more than 1.5 billion doses. Besides, the USA has bought around 1.01 billion doses in advance. However, the number of dosages is lower compared to the purchase made by India.

The US has a 330 million total population compared to India’s enormous 1.3 billion people. Countries with middle or lower-income must find other ways to get the vaccine, such as doing clinical trials in exchange for vaccine-like Peru did. India’s ability to buy billions of vaccine doses results from manufacturing agreements with vaccine-producing companies.

According to the percentage, high-income nations have purchased around 54%, almost to 4 billion doses. While low and middle-income countries have bought just over 23%. Especially, Canada has booked the highest number of vaccine dosages to each person compared to any other country. It has ordered over 350 million vaccinations for just 38 million people, roughly nine doses per person.

The Oxford-AstraZeneca University vaccine is in demand globally as 2.5 billion doses of this vaccine are sold. The academic institution in association with AstraZeneca developed this vaccine. It provides around 500 million vaccine dosages each to India and the U.S. Besides, it provides 400 million to the European Union. Novavax, the second-highest seller of COVID-19 vaccines as it has pre-sold 1.3 billion vaccine dosages. Also, Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna have sold 10% and 6% of the total vaccine doses in advance.

Top five COVID-19 vaccines used across the globe

There are four fundamental types of vaccines, live attenuated (whole virus), Vector vaccine, Nucleic acid vaccine, and protein subunit vaccine. Let’s find out more about the top five vaccines that are in huge demand globally.

  1. Oxford-AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222)

The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is the vaccine name. It is developed by the University of Oxford, with AstraZeneca. This vaccine works by delivering a gene that encodes SARS-CoV-2 spike protein it is similar to the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNtech vaccine). Once the gene is delivered, the COVID-19 spike protein is produced in our body. Our body recognizes the protein and develops COVID-19 specific antibodies, which means immunity gets build. After getting the jab, if the virus infects our body, it will be killed by these antibodies before it can establish the infection.

The results of clinical trials from the UK and Brazil showed that the vaccine prevents 70.4% of COVID-19 cases. It was estimated through two different groups of people who got two different dosages of the vaccine. The vaccine prevents around 73% of COVID-19 in individuals with at least one underlying health disorder. This vaccine shows a similar effect in older individuals in young and healthy individuals.

  1. Sputnik V Vaccine

The COVID-19 vaccine Sputnik V or Gam-COVID-Vac is a vector vaccine. It is an adenoviral-based vaccine produced in Russia. One requires taking two doses of this vaccine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Sputnik V vaccine contains a weakened virus that delivers small proteins or subunits of vaccine, which triggers an immune response in individuals. Sputnik V vaccine has higher efficiency as it reduces the time to develop immunity against the COVID-19 virus. It is an adenovirus vaccine; the adenovirus acts as a transport medium or container. It works to deliver a gene that codes for COVID-19 virus spike protein. This protein is produced in the body and triggers the immune response.

  1. Moderna COVID-19 vaccine

The Moderna COVID-19 vaccine is another popular COVID-19 vaccine, which is in huge demand. It has 94% efficiency against the COVID-19 vaccine; it is a type of mRNA vaccine. This vaccine is available for adults. This vaccine comes in two dosages, which should be taken 28 days apart. The second dose of vaccine could be taken up to a gap of six weeks. It may cause some common side effects such as headaches, chills, and tiredness. These side effects are observed after the second jab.

  1. Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine

The BNT162b2 is another mRNA vaccine produced by Pfizer and BioNTech. This vaccine delivers the mRNA in the body that contains a gene, which codes COVID-19 virus spike protein. The spike protein helps to trigger the immune response against the virus. It means that if the body encounters the virus, it will be able to kill it. The virus will not cause the infection as a live or whole virus cell is not present. The mRNA gets naturally degraded after some days. The safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 vaccine are tested in various countries globally, including the USA, Germany, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa, and Turkey. This vaccine shows 95% efficacy. The BNT162b2 vaccine is given in two dosages with a gap of 3 to 12 weeks between two doses.

  1. Janssen/Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine

The Janssen/Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine is a vector vaccine, which is in huge demand. In this vaccine, genetic material from the coronavirus is merged with a weakened virus gene. After getting the jab, the viral vector delivers genetic material from the COVID-19 virus and triggers the production of the S protein. Once immune cells display the S proteins on their surfaces, your body’s defense mechanism stimulates. If you become infected with the COVID-19 virus in the future, the antibodies will kill the virus.