These stem cells are extracted from the umbilical chord of a new born, without posing
a threat to the mother or the new born.
These are characteristically of the same type. Scientists have developed a special
technology through which they can mould these cells to become the precisely the
same cell that is required. These cells can grow into anyone of the body’s more
than 200 cell types. These cells retain the ability to divide throughout their life.
The advancement in research has helped create interest in exploring the possibilities
of fully functional differentiated cells such as cardiomyocytes, neurons and bone
and cartilage. Primarily, these stems cells are divided into
Umbilical chord stem cells
after the release of the fetus from the womb, two sides of the umbilical cord are
clamped. With the help of a needle, cord blood is extracted. Cord blood is rich
in stem cells. This along with a sample of the mother’s blood cells is preserved
in a bag. It is protected from coagulated and contamination from micro-organisms.
In the cord blood cell bank, it is checked for infection such as AIDS, hepatitis
and malaria and cryopreserved using liquid nitrogen for future use.
Human embryonic stem cells
They can also be extracted from aborted embryos and blastocysts developed from surplus
embryos in the IVF lab.
Fully grown stem cells
n adults, stem cells are extracted from the brain, bone marrow and skin. The extraction
process is similar to that of the extracting blood. The average amount of blood
extracted from the individual is around 500ml of blood which is sufficient for resting,
processing, cryopreservation and storage.