There are mainly two primary disorders that affect the male reproductive organs present in the external side of the body. They are the penile disorders/ male reproductive organ disorder and the testicular disorders. Such disorders are issues and unwanted complications with a man’s sexual function.
- Priapism –
This is a persistent and often painful erect state which is known to last for more than 4 hours at a stretch. This priapism erect state is not associated with any kind of sexual activity and this intern cannot be relieved by a having a sexual intercourse. It occurs after their increase in the blood flow of the male reproductive organ but it does not allow the male reproductive organ to drain out the blood or become relaxed even after climaxing. The most common causes of the priapism includes the alcohol or drug abuse, intake of certain medications for treating depression, increased blood pressure, persistent problems of the spinal cord, genital injuries, exceeded intake of anesthesia, and the presence of blood related diseases like leukemia. This can be treated by taking in the required drugs to shrink the blood vessels which decreases the flow of blood to the organ. In some cases medical surgery can be performed for treating this kind of priapism.
- Peyronie’s disease-
Peyronie’s disease is a condition in which there is a formation of a lump on the upper or lower side of the male reproductive organ. This causes irritation and discomfort to the affected individual. This can be present usually in the area containing the erectile tissues which is why the affected person experiences pain during intercourse .In a matter of few months the patient becomes emotionally distressed. The exact nature/reason for the formation of the hard lump is not known. Yet many reports in recent studies suggest that it might be due to heredity, vasculitis and other disorders. In order to decrease the size of the lump, many doctors observe it for a few months and in some cases, years . In many cases, the lump shrinks by itself while in some others surgery has been undertaken.
There are in total two surgical techniques involved entreating this hard lumps on the male reproductive organ. The first one is the traditional method of removing the lump followed later by artificial skin crafting and the second kind of surgery is known as the Nesbit procedure. In this, the surgeon removes the tissue which is found just opposite to the plaque in the male reproductive organ. This in turn cancels the bending effect of the male reproductive organ. A non surgical method which is now used by many surgeons is the act of thinning the plaque by exposing the plaques to sufficient amount of laser lights.
- Balanitis -
Balanitis is the inflammation of the head of the male reproductive organ. Symptoms of Balanitis include occurrence of redness, itichiness, rashes a well as pain on the exteriors of the male reproductive organ accompanied by a foul discharge .This usually occurs in those men and boys who have poor hygiene conditions. The poor hygiene leads to the formation of inflammation on the exteriors of the skin under the foreskin. These later result in the formation of debris, sweat, bacteria in the sensitive region and in a matter of few weeks the formation of inflammation can be seen in the male reproductive organ region. This can be treated only when the required medical care is followed. In severe cases a circumcision is the only option left where as in other cases the proper hygiene habits of washing with anti bacterial soap is enough to provide relief from this Balanitis.
- Phimosis -
Phimosis is a condition in which the foreskin of the male reproductive organ is so tight that it can never be pulled back to expose the head of the male reproductive organ. This is mostly present in adults due to a scar tissue whereas in children it is detected in early stage of their birth itself. Circumcision which is the surgical removal of the foreskin is the only treatment available for those with Phimosis. Preputioplasty is another surgical method by which the foreskin is effectively separated from the glans of the male reproductive organ.
- Paraphimosis -
Paraphimosis is a medical condition in which the foreskin is unable to return back to its original place after a sexual activity. This is the point wherein immediate medical help must be sought. In many severe conditions of Paraphimosis, the male reproductive organ is itself amputated to save the life of the person. However, this is rare practice and in most cases, it is avoided unless it means saving the life of the patient. The best and also a ‘first aid option’ is to try a simple method- places an ice cubes on his foreskin to allow more blood supply to his penile region. Circumcision is also another option which is considered as the only alternative left in case the reactions to ice and medicines are found to be futile.
- Penile cancer-
This is one of the least known cancers but due to lifestyle changes, it has also become a common form of cancer. This is also one of the most common forms of penile disorders and it usually includes symptoms like sores, discharge as well as bleeding of the male reproductive organ. Penile cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the external /internal connective tissues of the male reproductive organ. In addition with the above symptoms the presence of red colored lump/ sore /unhealed scar can also be taken into consideration as the symptoms of penile disorders. Circumcision is the process in which many boys are surgically treated to get their penile foreskin off from their male reproductive organ. Many boys have been circumcised shortly after their birth itself as is a part of certain religions and cultures. Penile cancer is found in persons due to the factor that they have plenty of sexual partners, though it can also occur due to unknown reasons. Another known cause that can increase the risk of penile cancer is increased intake of tobacco products.
The most alarming fact about this cancer is that it can spread very easily through the lymph, tissues and blood to other parts of the body. Treatment for this cancer is possible by taking the CT scan, Ultra sound test, MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging test) and all of these are found to be the possible means by which the cancer and its presence is found in digitalized image format. In Laser surgery a laser beam is usually injected and it is used to remove the tumors of the male reproductive organ .
Cryosurgery makes use of an instrument to freeze and destroy the abnormal tissue of the male reproductive organ. ‘Mohs micro surgery’ allows the surgeon to effectively remove the upper layers of the tumorous cells and this in turn enables the removal of cancerous tissues from the male reproductive organ. Radiation therapy on the other hand uses high energy x-ray beams to kill the cancer cells from the male reproductive organ.
Radio sensitizers, Biologic therapy, Sentinel lymph node biopsy (wherein a blue dye is injected near the tumor of the male reproductive organ) are all the new methods of treating penile cancer .In the lymph node biopsy the substance or dye flows through the lymph ducts to the lymph nodes. The first lymph node to receive the substance or dye is removed by the surgeon. Later, after examination under a microscope, if the presence of more cancer cells is detected, they are removed or else no further removal of lymph nodes is needed. In most cases, this removes the penile cancer cells though it cannot be prevented from reoccurring.